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Field Research - Get Included - Erasmus + KA2 Youth Project

Field Research - Get Included - Erasmus + KA2 Youth Project

Field Research - Get Included - Erasmus + KA2 Youth Project

Field Research - Get Included - Erasmus + KA2 Youth Project

Field Research - Get Included - Erasmus + KA2 Youth Project

Field Research - Get Included - Erasmus + KA2 Youth Project
Field Research - Get Included - Erasmus + KA2 Youth Project

This program is funded by the European Union and the Republic of Turkey.



Field Research
14 Nov 2019 Comment (0)

Field Research

Migration is with no doubt one of the most important issues of our times. Since the first and the second world wars, it could be the first time that so many people hear and talk about it. Yet, even in the countries where the migration is almost main topic, there are a lot of disinformation resulting with discrimination and exclusion of the migrants from the society. While many national and international organizations take part in the solution recently, we took a step with partnering organizations who already have an important experience on the field as well. Funded by EU, Erasmus+ Programme, the project was planned to have three main outputs which are a detailed need analysis of youth workers on gamification, entrepreneurship and inclusion, a tool kit of entrepreneurship and inclusion to be used by youth workers and a digital platform where the project results and intellectual outputs will be disseminated.

This research is the first output as mentioned and it is expected to be useful for youth workers who are active on the field, working with young refugees and migrants. As it is already showing us the way for the other activities within this specific project, hopefully it will lead NGOs and youth workers to produce more ideas out of it regarding the needs explained in the research.

With this research, it is basically tried to identify the awareness, skills and knowledge about gamification, entrepreneurship and if it is believed to be useful for inclusion of young refugees and migrants. While searching for the answers, an online survey including not only “yes-no” answers but also questioning the different personal approaches to the topic of the project and what is expected to achieve; to make youth workers know about gamification, entrepreneurship and using of them for inclusion.

Via this research and the other expected outputs of the project will contribute to the solution of the current migration issues, especially will lead youth workers to use more of non-formal methods for trainings and more use of gamification while raising the awareness on social entrepreneurship

1. Refugee & Migrant Situation Review

1.1. Introduction to Youth Work and Its Effects on Refugees & Migrant Issue

“Youth” is defined as “the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood”.(National Youth Agency, 2018) Generally, people are defined as young from the age of 15. Their social development also accelerates starting from this age.

Youth work encompasses a broad range of activities (eg. social, cultural, educational, sports-related and political) carried out with, by and for young people through non-formal and informal learning. (European Commission, 2018).

There are three basic features of youth work:

- Young people choose to participate,

- The works occur where the young people are,

- Young people and youth workers are partners in a learning process.

Youth work is important for help young people to release their potential and motivation. It gives chance for personal development, time management, and decision-making and communication competences. It also help to build confidence, provide role models, open up new experiences and give young people a sense of belonging. (European Commission, 2018).

These developments contribute not only to young people but also to other stakeholders of society. Adults and young people can work together and build community spirit, and play an active role in the development of their communities. For society, youth work handles real social issues and problems; it improves democratic and equal life. (National Youth Council of Europe, 2018).

Youth work ensures productive activities out of the formal education. Youth organizations, informal groups and institutions organized in different targets. These goals are youth rights and issues, education, employment, joining the making policy process, migration, disabled young people, equality of opportunity, fight against drug, alcohol and smoking, and sexual opportunity.

Youth organizations can be structured as local, regional, national and international. These organizing models show differences about reach more people and be effective. International and/or national grant programs help to youth organizations for apply projects and survive as economic. In this respect, the importance of youth work has increased in recent years. At the same time, youth works involve some different groups like feminists, LGBTQ, anti-militarists, immigrants, and disbelievers. Youth exist in a wide area, both inside and outside these of groups.

Youth work is shaped within the framework of rights and problems of young people. Several social factors are important for young people to express themselves in society. Differences in age groups and varying needs are important for youth workers to provide their support and services. Local youth associations can observe the needs in the field more easily and can provide cooperation with national actors more quickly. Migrants are also part of youth work.

Youth are a notable group in the immigrant integration process. They do not only constitute an important part of the immigrant and refugee population, but also are part of the possible solution mechanisms for refugees and migrants. At the same time, the elements that make youth work an essential part of the support mechanism for young refugees varies beyond the demographic data and numbers.

First of all, youth work is accepted as essential in citizenship and citizenship formation. By leading to social participation, it contributes directly or indirectly to youth political participation, and thereby increases representativeness and democratic culture (Dolejšiová, 2009: 9). Youth work can also actively contribute to extending the traditional understandings of many issues, such as the borders of citizenship and of rights (Pisani, 2016:93). Youth work can also support refugees by reshaping identities with host societies. Hudson recommends that youth work should not only work directly with refugees but also with the host society, since it is in host societies that anti-foreigner and anti-immigrant discourse often abounds (Hudson, 2014:10). Beyond having a central role in inclusion policies and multicultural policies within the local community, youth work can build trust between young migrants/refugees and their host society. Therefore, youth work with young refugees can have a multi-faceted impact, touching on aspects of identity, citizenship, inclusion and integration among two communities, both refugees and host society members.

In its reports, the European Commission underlines that youth work has convergent dimensions with some other policy areas such as formal education, social work, health, justice, sports, guidance & counselling and culture (European Commission, 2014:60). All of these areas constitute channels through which youth work can support young refugees. Via these channels, youth work brings added value for refugees through four components in which youth work contributes towards young persons’ personal development. These components are self-determination, self-confidence, self-esteem and socialization, which also enhance the empowerment of young refugees. (European Commission, 2014:5).

In particular, youth work can support refugees by increasing awareness of equality, social justice and equity through its’ strong ties with the politics of inclusion and exclusion. Therefore, it also constitutes an indispensable part of refugee support mechanisms.

Support for refugees by youth work can take place in the short, medium and long-term. Short-term supports contain sheltering, food and health aids. Mid-term supports include education, comprehensive health services, and language supports; Long-term support includes the integration process that involves employment. Some services require government policies, and some services can be provided with the support of smaller groups. (European Commission, 2016:18). Youth work is carried out and professional, social, educational and cultural adaptation processes are supported for young migrants by national and international projects. Strengthening the communication processes among young and foreign youth also enables young people to cooperate in accordance with common goals.

1.2. Social Inclusion of Migrants through Youth Work

The social inclusion of refugees and migrants has been a serious topic in many European countries. Among them, Greece is considered to be a country, which has been affected a lot from the refugees’ crisis, since it is the south-east border of European Union (and especially from 2015 there is an unprecedented inflow of migrants and refugees (https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34131911). This means that Greece is the country that many refugees and migrants reach in the beginning, and actually before they continue their route to other European countries, such as Germany, Denmark and Sweden. Youth work (https://ec.europa.eu/youth/gallery/what-youth-work-today_en) has played a momentous role in the social inclusion of refugees and migrants and their active participation in Greek society, urban, semi-urban and rural (and its consequences).

Young refugees and migrants belong to one of the most vulnerable groups, on the grounds that it experiences discrimination and disadvantages for many reasons. Youth workers, who are trained to work with refugees and migrants, know h Intercultural education (UNESCO, 2006) is one of the most significant parts of the social inclusion of refugees and migrants and this is the way that youth workers in Greece try to implement the theory into praxis. This practically means that through seminars and workshops (in the field of non- formal education) that include refugees, migrants and local population, they try to bring them together and eliminate any differences, which may be considered as crucial. Through this way, education and labor market for refugees and migrants is and will certainly continue to be more accessible. Especially for young migrants and refugees, this is something really important to be achieved.

United Societies of Balkans- NGO (https://www.usbngo.gr/) based in the city of Thessaloniki has tried through the time and especially after the peak of the refugees’ crisis of 2015 to get involved or develop and implement initiatives, which help young migrants and refugees to be an active part of the society. To be more specific, United Societies of Balkans has organized training courses for trainers and/or youth workers so as to give them the necessary professional knowledge to cope with young migrants and refugees, and except that has provided the youth workers with handbooks and contact seminars/ workshops to help to the integration process of them (the refugees). The two main long-term projects that have been developed by United Societies of Balkans are:

1. ACT, Youth in Movement project aimed at creating innovative citizen pathways for young people with fewer opportunities, by providing them with the opportunity to realize a volunteering project with migrants or refugees in Greece or Italy (https://youthinmovement.com/).

2. Reach Out project aimed at giving the capacity to youth workers to reach out young migrants and refugees. (Retrieved from: https://reachout.yasar.edu.tr/)

This had a real impact, since many of them started to participate actively in exchanges, get in touch with local communities and had the chance to involve in activities with them from the entry level that they were in the country.

Apart from United Societies of Balkans, there are other NGOs like Arsis (http://www.arsis.gr/) that has created social intervention groups (consisted of youth workers and facilitators) that support the general population, with special attention to vulnerable groups in refugees’ camps (like kids with no parents). This helps them to improve the quality of their life and gives prospects and optimism for their future.

To sum up, social inclusion of the vulnerable groups of refugees and migrants has been affected a lot in Greece, due to the role of youth work, which helps a lot the integration process. Starting with the mapping of the specific needs of refugees and migrants and continuing with analysis of them and creation of opportunities though intercultural education, youth workers create only the first step of a long way to be covered as soon as possible.

1.3. A review of Entrepreneurship in Youth Work

1.3.1. Review of Literature on Social Entrepreneurship and Gamification

There are a few scholarly articles linking social entrepreneurship and gamification regarding to our research. It should also be noted that most articles focuses strictly on digital gamification. However, some organizations and enterprises aim at linking social entrepreneurship with gamification in some sense. It seems like these organizations for the most part focus on teaching social entrepreneurship through gamification.

Social entrepreneurs applies principles of for-profit businesses to societal issues. So when they utilize gamification, overly simplified as game world mechanics to real life activities, the opportunities are endless. And while now, gamification is still best known as an online concept where players engagement, achievements and interests are rewards, it should still be recognized how important gamification actually can be when it comes to tackling real life issues, such as in the example of integrating refugees.

The Open Mind project (https://open-mind-project.eu/gamification) is one of the organization aiming at linking social entrepreneurship and gamification, and their project aims at facilitating access to social entrepreneurship training for students, with a special focus at women through a gamified online course. It will be an online course, a gamified course, which will contain different categories that addresses business and entrepreneurship issues and solutions, training participants in how to make business plans and fundraise etc. Participants will also learn about the legal framework, as well as basic business models and how to implement social projects and thus produce social impact as an end goal.

Innov8Social is another, who has hosted events on gamification, bringing together start-up entrepreneurs to discuss how gamification best can be utilized in this context. Using gamification within social entrepreneurship, with different objectives, there is a number of unique ways to utilize everything gamification can be. As the desired outcomes go beyond earning money and simply engaging people in this sense, the opportunities are many. An example used by Innov8Social is that gamifying literacy, hunger or clean energy can provide compelling reasons to play, and as such the end value for the players can be tailored differently to reward social change behavior (What Do Social Entrepreneurs Need, 2012).

Games for Change is an organization, which aims to create different online games for social change. They work from three principles of the form of gamification, namely;

1) Involve  

 2) Impact 

 3) Inspire. 

Stating that they wish to involve through applications that are social by design, creating platforms for networking and interaction, they hope to provide a forum where communities can from. The continuing interaction within these communities will in turn create impact, and through support within the communities this will hopefully both engage and inspire (BDCMI).

1.3.2. Review of Literature on Integration of Migrants and Refugees

Definitions and understanding of what ‘integration’ is vary, but most scholars appear to agree that integration does not constitute assimilation. Harrell-Bond writes that integration is ‘a situation in which host and refugee communities are able to co-exist, sharing the same resources - both economic and social - with no grater mutual conflict than that which already exists within the host community’’ (Harrell-Bond in Kuhlman, 1991), but adds that this definition might be a too simple one to adequately define this term. An approach to the process of integration is also formulated in ‘Understanding Integration: A Conceptual Framework’ by Alastair Ager and Alison Strang as a ‘’long-term two-way process of change’’ (Ager and Strang, 2008). This is a process defined as ‘relating both to the conditions for, and the actual participation of, refugees in all aspects of life in the country of durable asylum as well to the refugees’ own sense of belonging and membership in European societies’ according to the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE, 1999).

Ager and Strang’s article is based on field studies where a number of respondents identified social connection as a defining feature of an integrated community. The initial approach to the field study was to focus on the experience of the refugees, but as Ager and Strang argues, this would shape the understanding of the ideas relating to integration in a way that would view the refugees as a being ‘inserted’ into the the community where they settle. Approaching integration as a two-way process, the authors suggest that the process can be seen as one of mutual accommodation, taking into consideration the means of social connection between refugees and members of the community.

Ager and Strang provides a conceptual framework for integration their article, which is shown in the diagram below. The framework can as such be seen as a tool for understanding the information gathered when studying the integration process, but needs to be put in an empirical context.

The ‘two-way process’ approach to integration is also emphasized in the definition put forward by Threadgold and Court: ‘’broadly speaking integration is the process by which immigrants and refugees become part of the receiving society’’. They further underline this by stating that integration ‘’is often used still to imply a one-way adaption or acculturation to the dominants culture and way of point to the lack of explicit definition of integration within the framework provided by Ager and Strang (Threadgold and Court, 2005). They also highlight six ‘key indicators’ that would life’’ (Threadgold and Court, 2005). They also use the work of Ager and Strang as a baseline, although they need to be addressed with regard to refugee exclusion and deprivation. Housing, health and social care, child welfare, safety, interaction and community cohesion, employment training and lifelong learning, and education.

The term social exclusion has also been defined by Castles et al, as a denial of certain rights, resources or entitlements. With regard to immigrants these are seen as manifested in lack of political rights, insecure residence status and racism (Castles et al, 2001). There is also dimension where ‘’the socially excluded tend to become concentrated in disadvantaged neighborhoods, which are often characterized by poor services and amenities, social stress, crime and racial conflict’’. Threadgold and Court also offers a set off measures that can be undertaken to facilitate integration. These are; combating poverty and deprivation; providing translation, free English language teaching and ‘cultural mediation’; education of the receiving communities and support for them in adapting to the new incomers; and combating of negative attitudes and media coverage.

Bosswick and Heckman defines four different forms of integration; structural identification, cultural integration, interactive integration and identical integration. The first is defines as the part of the process when the individual gains rights and subsequently accesses the basic institutions in society (Bosswick and Heckman 2006). They underline specially the economy and possibilities for finding a job and a house, the welfare system, and obtaining a full political citizenship. Participation in these areas constitutes the core of the integration process, according to Bosswick and Heckman. Cultural integration refers to the obtaining of the core competencies of the dominant culture and society. The two-way nature of the process is referred to by Bosswick and Heckman when they argue that the process of integration also changes the host society within which the refugees settle.

Interactive integration refers to the refugees being ‘’accepted’’ within ‘primary relationships and social networks of the host society’ (Bosswick and Heckman, 2006). They also argue that the core element of cultural interaction has to be in place in order for the process continuing on to ‘interactive integration’ being the next step. The last step in the process is the identificational integration, which is defines as the development of a ‘sense of belonging’.

1.3.3. Content And Methodology Of Available Training Offers For Youth Workers And Refugees About Social Entrepreneurship

The desktop research showed us that this type of training is happening mainly within different NGO’s. There is a number of training opportunities for youth workers, provided by NGO’s and funded by organizations such as the EU, Erasmus+ etc. We have researched a couple of the available trainings/courses, where information was easily accessible to us, and outlined the methods and content of the selected trainings researched.

The trainings researched seems to be heavily focused on the dialogue approach, where participants actively debates issues selected by course facilitators. Topics such as multiculturalism, human rights, combating hate speech and so on seem to be a part of most of the trainings researched. Youth workers will also build competence on issues such as mental health and trauma, cross-cultural dialogue and cross-sectorial cooperation through attending these trainings. There also seems to be a significant higher number of available trainings for youth workers aiming to work with refugees and immigrants, rather than trainings for social entrepreneurship aiming to work for/with refugees.

Several of the course facilitators also stress that these programs/courses/trainings are in response to the growing need for youth workers, and the important key role that they play relating to inclusion and integration of young refugees. The different relevant practices available today varies from being independent offers to structured approaches, and also in some cases spontaneous responses to methodological structured. A training offered by the organization Youth in Advance is a two- phase training, which offers participants a holistic view on the realities and the possible responses to these realities. The main objective of the course is to create a common ground on key concepts and contexts relevant to and in-between youth workers and young refugees. Defining the conceptual framework the work is being done within, like terminology, youth work theory and international legal framework, seems to be a basic feature in the trainings available. Several of these also includes developing competences and building organization capacity, and touches upon topics varying from counter-narratives to tackle hate speech to networking and cooperation between different sectors.

SALTO Youth is another organization offering training specifically in social entrepreneurship with/for immigrants, refugees and other marginalized groups. The project outline is to provide and train youth workers who wants to develop their social entrepreneurs skills, working both with and for refugees. This course also relies on debate in between participants, and them sharing realities and experiences on issues such as exclusion, marginalization and discrimination within different communities.

The participants will also share experiences on existing social enterprises with/for refugees, as well as inspire each other to have new and creative ideas for the enterprises of the future. They will explore social entrepreneurship concepts, analyze stakeholders and different supporters, and also - and maybe most importantly in this context - explore the connection between inclusion and social entrepreneurship.

The Papyrus projects (https://papyrus-project.org/training-kit-youth-workers/) also offers online training kits for youth workers working with refugees, in order to meet the need for youth workers with this specific competence. The kit covers a range of different topics related to multiculturalism, inclusion, economy and abuse prevention. Youth workers can easily access the online, open-access training kit, and build their competence through this online course.

Centre for Intercultural Dialogue offers a project called ‘’Education and Youth Work for Social Entrepreneurship with and for Immigrants and Asylum Seekers’’ (http://cid.mk/2018/09/12/training-course-education-and- youth-work-for-social-entrepreneurship-with-and-for-immigrants-and-asylum-seekers/)

 This program also aims to build capacity of youth workers and organizations in the field of social entrepreneurship through empowerment of the youth workers, by developing needed tools and courses for both online and offline education. The content and methods used in this program are also heavily reliant on dialogue - sharing and exchanging realities and experiences with exclusion, racism, discrimination and marginalization of different groups. They also seek to increase the participants’ knowledge and deeper understanding of asylum seekers, and other marginalized groups in different communities.

Concentrating on the social entrepreneurship aspect of the training, the course will focus on the participants’ understanding of key concepts, different aspects to entrepreneurship, stakeholder and supporters, and the participants’ own competence on the field. They also focus on Need Analysis and surveys of socially excluded groups in the different communities, as to better understand how to develop their own projects. Participants also get training in defining, planning and coordinating projects of quality, which in turn will benefit and contribute to social entrepreneurship working both with and for immigrants and refugees.

1. 4. Review of Literature on Social Entrepreneurship and Gamification

1.4.1. Introduction: Gamification as a Powerful Tool

Gamification is a concept that refers to the use and application of game design elements and no-game aspects to improve the user experiences, but also to engage them more intensively to the activities, making the participant more dedicated and/or concentrated in the learning or process itself (Dicheva, Dichev, Agre, & Angelova, 2015).

Gamification then, is a tool that makes use of the game mechanic and the design of experiences in order to involve and motivate people in reaching their goals. The main objective is to influence on participants and change their attitudes and behaviours; here is the main focus of interest of this method.

Diverse experts in this issue, as Zicherman (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabe_Zichermann) or Christopher Cunningham or Karl Kapp (http://karlkapp.com)/, defend that any game that is including the ideal of “Gamification”, has the purpose of generating influence on the psychological and social behaviour of participants.

This tool produce and generate experiences, generate feelings about autonomy, self-esteem, bringing participants to a change of point of view or even behaviour. With Gamification, participants get more attracted to reach their goals by different processes: get committed, get into a competition or develop cooperation. Those issues contribute to participants to feel the desire to commit to a concrete objective and go forward.

All those elements make Gamification be used currently all around in social media, websites or professional and companies sectors. Most consumers like to find mobile applications that include game elements that make this use more attractive to come back to them.

The following info-graphic provides a general view of the relevance of this trend, focusing in the opportunity to approach current users/players. And highlights a relevant issue:”(Gamification) can be applied to all topics if using the right mechanics”, and it is also remembering that it is also “promotes behavioural changes”.

If considering all those positive and trending use of Gamification into social inclusion, then the result can also be relevant.

1.4.2. Real Experiences of Gamification for Social Integration or Social Change

Social integration is the process of allowing persons to become an accepted part of the society. So, social inclusion or social integration refers to the quantity of social relations and the frequency of contact with those people. And it is defined in three specific dimensions: Social, cultural and political.

People need to stablish relations, specially when arriving to a new context with diverse personal circumstances (as migrations, asylum seeking process, difficulties with local language, etc.), in order to become a citizen with all rights and obligations, with all the opportunities to interact, act and develop as a member in the community in those three levels: social, cultural and political.

So far, Gamification as a current trade is being used for diverse purposes, included business, human resources, but also into the social context. Digital games (as an example of Gamification products), can become an incredible tool for empowerment and a tool for socio-economic inclusion of people at risk of social exclusion (considering those as youth at risk, migrants, elderly people, unemployed or low-educated citizens) .

There have been so far diverse initiatives in order to make use of games, and specially video-games, in favour of positive social change. Here there are listed several initiatives that focus in the attraction of Gaming, but projecting the attention to relevant social issues, and specially on raising awareness into specific topics.


It’s an NGO that promotes video-game projects in order to increase social awareness around issues as poverty, education, Human Rights, Gender Equality or Climate Change.


This is supported by Woodrow Wilson International centre since 2002, and works with video-game creation, always prioritizing education before entertainment.



Save the Children created this game to increase social awareness regarding the tragedy suffer in the Mediterranean Sea. This game allows participants to navigate aboard the Vos Hestia (rescue boat) and search (as the real boat does), of boats with children, women, men and migrant men adrift. During the game diverse messages appear to raise awareness of players regarding the real situation that many migrants and refugees are suffering today, as well as the need to contribute and or feel implicated with this cause.


Alianza de Civilizaciones from United Nations and the company Omnium Lab Studios, has developed this interactive game for smart-phones, in order to put us in a refugee’s or migrant’s shoes. This game was designed by young participants and also migrants and refugees. The game describes in first person the diverse migrant process from origin to destination. This game promotes empathy by living specific and complex situations that lot of migrants and refugees suffer each day. Reaching the goal of this game means to overpass fears, prejudices and social barriers. Survival is considered as “serious game”.


Educational project focused in the awareness and empathy increase of citizens towards refugees. A tool to bring to school and promote complementary and social education.

Those are some highlight experiences that show how this powerful tool can have a social and collective application and focus on behavioural change in favour of social causes.

1.4.3. Effects And Impact of Gamification on Youth Activities

Gamification works in enhancing motivation and/or reinforcement behaviors. It is also working facilitating learning and participation in diverse ways, developing system thinking skills, creativity or social skills.

But focusing on youth, Gamification is a powerful tool that can have incredible effects and impacts. Gaming is identified by youth as a challenger activity that get their attraction and provides lot of learnings in the process as social learning, creative and personalized learning, experimentation, development of core skills as literacy and maths, technology or design, etc.

But gaming is also developing on youth other interesting skills as building social ties and participation into communities, personal empowerment by improving self-confidence and self-efficacy, and of course, increasing awareness among particular groups into important issues such as discrimination.

These outcomes are relevant in order to facilitate active empowerment and social inclusion of participants, when preparing themselves for future live related to labor market, active citizenship or social participation. And, even all target groups can be the goal, games-based approaches offer an special opportunity to reach young people at some social risk .

The power of this tool is specially interesting when it comes to promote a behavioral change, according to personal motivation, personal interests, or even personal perspective of reality, increasing awareness of diverse issues. Socialization throw the use of games (mostly by experiences regarding online or video games), can increase the learning outcomes, the increase of participation and consolidation of social capital.

But, considered into “The potential of Digital games for empowerment and Social inclusion of Groups at risk of social and economical exclusion”, a part from the learning approach, Gamification, is not limited to knowledge transfer and skills development, but brings also other social impact into players as a rich social and psychological process for individuals and groups that are related to:

• Experimentation with simulation of reality, allowing to replay and the practice and test;

• Promotion of individual empowerment by the challenge of player in dealing with control and sensory experiences,

• Bringing the opportunity to in-game collaboration and community formation, enhancing social interaction and cooperation.

So, an effective environment where learners practice real-life situations and challenges leads to a more engaged learning experience, and facilitates better knowledge retention.

Then, Gamification is generating a global effect on participants that sum educational and learning outcomes, with personal skills and personal self-esteem, together with the capacity to increase social interaction and social awareness. It is, indeed, a great tool to be used for any context and goal.

When trying to focus in the direct impact that those tools have made on migrants and refugees, there was no concrete finding. The trend of Gamification is still on, and literature is more focused on general effects and impacts and, even there are already some games designed for this target of users, results have not been much reported in accessible literature.

In the article “New Locals: overcoming Integration barriers with mobile informal and gamified learning” , developed in the University of Bremen, its named that “Gamification in education has a ubiquitous presence nowadays in different areas. Yet the research between Gamification in education and integration is limited. There is no empirical research revealing its potential for informal learning regarding local integration of migrants”.

1.4.4. Potentiality of Gamification for Social Integration of Migrants And Refugees

When dealing with Gamification we are not just talking about a learning experience, but also the fact of immersing users in a specific learning environment.

On the other side, related to findings and literature, it is much easier to find games designed to affect positively migrants/refugees or increase social inclusion of migrants but in an indirect way; not direct action of interaction of or with migrants /refugees but games where “non-migrant/refugee players” increase their awareness about reality of migrant/refugee population. Even thou, this is affecting and generating impact on migrant/refugees’ life by the increase of citizens willing to facilitate the social integration of newcomers.

So, the consideration is, as trend and opportunity, Gamification can also create and generate great results and impacts on young migrants and refugees, considering them as general target group (youth), but adding the fact that they come from special circumstances in the context where they come to live in. Then, all consideration and positive impacts that Gamification have been generating, could also benefit young migrant and refugees in their integration process.

The success of Gamification system is directly related to the context where it is developed, the design selected and the interaction of participants. Issues that programmers need to have in mind to generate games that will be useful and successful for this specific target group.

Education and social awareness will be the great beneficiaries of Gamification, where making fun during the learning process will bring lot of attraction but also will require more expertise on programmers and educators. The challenge is then on the ones creating and starting “the game”.

1.4.5. Non – Formal Activity Examples on Youth Work for Refugees & Migrants

As we know that the number of Syrians, only in Turkey is estimated at over 3.58 million people as of April 2018, and consists mainly of refugees of the Syrian Civil War. Some 610,278 Syrian children were enrolled in Turkey’s national education system during the 2017-2018 school year, according to data provided by the General Directorate for Migration in the Turkish Interior Ministry. Of the school-aged Syrian refugees, 61,813 enrolled in high school education. Except for these numbers, there a number of NGOs working for support for young refugees and migrants by organizing non-formal activities, mainly for inclusion or personal training. These workshops involved different target groups from various background such as teachers, students, youth, youth with fewer opportunities with economic, social, geographical obstacles.

In 2015, Gaziantep Eğitim gençlik Derneği (GEGED), the partner of the GET INCLUDED Project organized trainings for teachers who are working at formal schools and let the participants practice and learn non formal methods and Paulo Freire’s oppressed learning pedagogy and dialogue method. 10 teachers experienced and learned how to use non formal methods in formal classrooms with students. They implemented these methods in their classrooms and gave feedback about the results. GEGED also carried out learning sessions for its volunteers. Some popular non-formal methods were practiced by our volunteers and trainers for NFE organized workshops for the volunteers where they discovered these NFE methods. The volunteers of GEGED also used these methods with our target group including Syrian and Afghan Aslyum Seekers living in Gaziantep.

 The impact of these methodologies applied by volunteers during their social Works with asylum seekers:

- Team building activities created a good atmosphere among the target group which helped them express themselves easier, felt safe and encouraged for active participation to the activities.

- Ice breakers let the group respect each other and understand and be aware of different cultures and backgrounds.

- Energizers were quite useful when the motivation and energy of the group were decreasing.

- Dialogue method: This method is used to see the level of motivation of the target group, to understand the real learning needs of the persons and if there were any barrier for learning or working on a topic behind the participants mind or life experience, (prejudices, events, memories, disabilities )

- Paule Freire’s Pedagogy of Opressed, forum theatre, Opressed theatre and image theatre methods were the key methods used for promoting the participants Express their problems and needs in a creative way.

Recently more and more informal educational institutions are trying non formal methods and it is announced by Ministry of Education that all the teachers will start the first days of the school terms with non formal methods for teambuilding, ice breakers and energizers. It became a necessity especially When they start to register the Syrian students to normal State schools and the classrooms are now including Turkish and Syrian Students together. There is no way to skip some extra curriculum activities before the learning process starts in schools if you have pupils from different cultures, beliefs and migration background in order to set up an effective learning atmosphere. In the beginning of the school term each teacher participated in workshops and in service trainings to practice these non formal education methods.

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